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小学1-6年级英语重难点知识大汇总,查漏补缺!

  
英语学习

  1
  语法易错点
     1. a, an的选择: 元音字母开头的单词用an,辅音字母开头的单词用a.
     2. am , is , are的选择: 单数用is , 复数用are. I 用 am , you 用 are.
     3. have , has 的选择: 表示某人有某物.单数用has , 复数用have. I ,you 用 have .
     4. there is, there are 的选择:表示某地有某物,某人.单数用there is , 复数用there are.
     5. some, any 的选择:肯定句用some, 疑问句和否定句用any.
     6. 疑问词的选择:what (什么) who (谁) where (哪里) whose (谁的) why(为什么)when(什么时候)which(哪一个)how old (多大) how many (多少)how much(多少钱)
     2
  形容词比较级
     当我们需要对事物作出比较时,需要用到比较级.比较级的句子结构通常是:
     什么 + 动词be (am , is , are ) + 形容词比较级 + than(比)+ 什么 ,如:
     I'm taller and heavier than you. (我比你更高和更重.)
An elephant is bigger than a tiger. (一只大象比一只老虎更大.)
  
形容词的比较级是在形容词的基础上变化而来的,它的变化规则是:
① 一般的直接在词尾加er ,如 tall - taller , strong - stronger ,
② 以e结尾的,直接加r ,如 fine – finer ,
③ 以辅音字母加y结尾的,先改y为i再加er,如funny - funnier
④ 双写最后的字母再加er,如big – bigger, thin – thinner ,hot – hotter
  ☆注意☆
  比较的两者应该是互相对应的可比较的东西.
典型错误:My hair is longer than you.(我的头发比你更长.)
比较的两者是我的头发,你(整个人),那么比较的对象就没有可比性.
应该改为:My hair is longer than yours. 或My hair is longer than your hair.
     3
  动词过去式
  动词的过去式的构成规则有:
     A,规则动词
① 一般直接在动词的后面加ed:如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited
② 以e结尾的动词直接加d:如 lived , danced , used
③ 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改y为i再加ed(此类动词较少)如 study – studied carry – carried worry – worried (注意play,stay不是辅音字母加y,所以不属于此类)
④ 双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少)如 stopped
     B,不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:sing – sang , eat – ate , see – saw , have – had , do – did , go - went , take - took , buy - bought , get - got , read - read ,fly - flew , am/is - was ,
are - were , say - said , leave - left , swim - swam , tell - told , draw - drew , come - came , lose - lost , find - found , drink - drank , hurt - hurt , feel - felt
     4
  动词现在分词详解
     ① 一般的直接在后面加上ing , 如doing , going , working , singing , eating
② 以e 结尾的动词,要先去e再加ing ,如having , writing
③ 双写最后一个字母的(此类动词极少)有:running , swimming , sitting , getting
     5
  人称代词主格及宾格
     人称代词分为主格和宾格,主格和宾格区别:主格和宾格汉语意思相同,但位置不同。
  Eg:I(主格)"我"-- me (宾格)"我"
  主格在陈述句中通常放句首,宾格通常放在动词后或介词后,也就是说宾格,不放在句首。
  Eg :I have a new car.( I 主格)
  Excuse me (me 宾格)
  I ask him to go (him 宾格)
  They sit in front of me (me 宾格)
  主格(8个):I 我you你 he他 she她 it它 we 我们you 你们they他(她、它)们
  宾格(8个):me我 you你 him 他her她 it它 us我们 you你们 them他(她、它)们
     6
  句型专项归类
     1.肯定句:是指用肯定的语气来陈述的句子,
  如:I'm a student.
  She is a doctor.
  He works in a hospital.
There are four fans in our classroom.
     2,否定句:含有否定词或表示否定意义词的句子,
  如:I'm not a student.
He does not (doesn't) work in a hospital.
  There are not (aren't) four fans in our classroom.
  ☆注意☆ 小结:
  否定句主要是在肯定句的基础上加上了否定词 "not".有动词be的句子则"not"加在be后面,可缩写成"isn't,aren't",但am not 一般都分开写.没有动词be的句子则要先在主要动词的前面加上一个助动词(do,does,did),然后在它后面加上"not",你也可以把它们缩写在一起如"don't , doesn't , didn't ).这三个助动词要根据人称和时态来选择,其中"does"只用于一般现在时主语是第三人称单数的情况,而"did"只用于一般过去时,不论主语是什么人称和数,都用"did" .
     3,一般疑问句:是指询问事实的句子,此类句子必须用"yes",或"no"来回答.
  如:Are you a student ?Yes, I am No, I'm not.
Is she a doctor?Yes, she is. No, she isn't.
Does he work in a hospital ?Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.
Did you watch TV yesterday evening? Yes, I did. / No, I didn't.
     ☆注意☆ 小结:
  一般疑问句是在肯定句的基础上,
①把动词be调到首位,其他照写,末尾标点符号变成问号即可.
②没有动词be的句子则要在句首加上一个助动词(do,does,did)再把紧跟在后面的动词变回原形,末尾标点符号变成问号即可.
这三个助动词也要根据人称和时态来选择,其中"does"只用于一般现在时主语是第三人称单数的情况,而"did"只用于一般过去时,不论主语是什么人称和数,都用"did" .一般疑问句有个重要的原则就是问和答要一致,即问句里的第一个单词(助动词)和简略答句里的这个词是一致的.
     4,特殊疑问句:以特殊疑问词(what , where , who , which , when , whose , why , how等)开头引导的句子.此类句子应该问什么就答什么,不能用"yes ,no"来回答.如:
     What is this?
Where are you going?
Who played football with you yesterday afternoon?
When do you usually get up?
Why do you like spring best ?
How are you?
     ☆注意☆ 小结:
  其中how又可以和其他一些形容词连用组成特殊疑问词组用来提问,如: how many(多少(数量)), how much(多少(钱)), how tall(多高), how long(多长), how big(多大), how heavy(多重)
  例句:How many pencils do you have ?
How many girls can you see ?
  how many 用来提问可数名词的数量,主要有以上三种搭配,
How many + 名词复数 + do you have 你有多少……
How many + 名词复数 + can you see 你能看见多少……
How many + 名词复数 + are there… 有多少……
     7
  完全,缩略形式
     1、简缩形式的变法:把倒数第二个字母,通常是元音字母变成' 但are除外,are要把a打成' 。Eg:he is=he's they are=they're
     2、简缩形式和完全形式的汉语意思相同。
     3、把完全形式变成简缩形式时,一定要注意第一个字母的大小变化。Eg:What is =What's
     4、记住一个特殊变化;let's =let us 让我们(不要把' 变成i)
     5、记住:this is 没有简缩形式this's(错误)
     6.常见的缩略形式:
  I'm=I am he's=he is she's=she is
  they're=they you're=you are
  there's=there is they're=they are
  can't=can not don't=do not
  doesn't=does not isn't=is not
  aren't=are not let's=let us
  won't=will not I'll=I will
  wasn't=was not

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